Lotje Boswinkel is a PhD researcher at the Centre for Security, Diplomacy and Strategy (CSDS) of the Brussels School of Governance (BSoG-VUB). Prior to joining CSDS, Lotje worked as a strategic analyst at the Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, where her research focused on European security and defence. Lotje also worked as a trainee at the European Union Institute for Security Studies, covering the Middle East and the future of war, and has co-authored various policy briefs and chapters (including for the European Parliament, IEMed, AGSIW, and the journal International Affairs). Lotje holds a M.A. in International Security from Sciences Po in Paris and a B.A. in Liberal Arts and Sciences from Amsterdam University College.